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Bogash outlines biopesticide applications at event
By DOROTHY NOBLE
(Editor’s note: This is the third of three articles on Steve Bogash’s presentation at the recent Farming for the Future convention of the Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture. The first two appeared in the two previous issues of The Delmarva Farmer.)
STATE COLLEGE, Pa. (Feb. 28, 2017) — Steve Bogash, advisor with ISP Technologies, detailed the attributes and usages of a number of biopesticides at the recent Farming for the Future convention of the Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture.
In his basic tomato program, Bogash began with a preplant drench of Rootshield Plus, or Actinovate or Terra Grow.
At planting time, Regalia was used for foliar protection. The following week, Cease was applied to discourage a range of diseases.
Then a weekly proactive program specified Regalia plus copper, alternated with Actinovate plus a biostimulant such as Stimplex.
If fighting bacterial diseases, he suggested adding a foliar 5-day schedule of Actiguard. Keep in mind that Actiguard is not organic and has a 14-day pre-harvest interval.
In high tunnels, move the spray schedule to Monday, Friday, and Wednesday with Regalia-Actinovate, and Cease-Stimplex.
Then insert Grandevo, Venerate and Met52 into the program. Tank mix these as much as possible. Add magnesium chelate, calcium chelate and soluble potassium to tank mixes at low rates.
If high disease pressure occurs, consider steaming or using Terra Grow; then inject Regalia.
Bogash described the listed diseases, modes of action and other pertinent attributes of numerous biopesticides for vegetable production.
Listed broadly for edible and ornamental crops, Regalia fights the fungal and bacterial diseases downy and powdery mildew, early and late blight, bacterial leaf spot and botrytis blight.
The re-entry interval for Regalia is four hours, but the pre-harvest interval is zero. Its mode of action is reduced resistance.
Stimplex, with seaweed, stimulates the salicylic acid pathway, and increases the activity of soil microorganisms and nutrient availability at a wide pH range.
A biostimulant with many components, Metabolik HV-1, alleviates stress from salinity and drought and enhances leaf chlorophyll. It improves flower set.
For the soil and foliar diseases of botrytis, alternaria, pythium, powdery mildew, fusarium, phytopthora, rhizoctonia, bacterial leaf rot and sclerotina, Companion is broadly labeled for plug production, fruit and nut trees and ornamentals.
For induced system resistance action, it colonizes the rhizosphere and stimulates growth.
Its REI is four hours, the PHI is zero. Companion is a specific strain of B. subtillus GB03.
Also a specific strain, Cease is B. subtillus QST 713.
It is labeled for greenhouse vegetables, ornamentals, trees, shrubs and conifers.
It is active against anthracnose, bacterial speck and rot, black spot, botrytis, downy and powdery mildew, phytophthora, rust, scab, rhizoctonia, pythium and fusarium.
Do not mix Cease with B. bassiana. Primarily a defensive barrier, it is not rain-fast but can be applied every three days.
Bogash suggests applying with a spreader sticker.
Serenade is also a specific strain of B. subtillus QST 713.
It works by colonizing to exclude pathogens of downy and powdery mildew, rust, botrytis, bacterial spot and speck, and early and late blight.
Plus, Bogash says it likely has a symbiosis with T-22 (Rootshield). It can be used for foliar and root drench applications for vegetables, berries, grapes and tree fruit.
Double Nickle has a REI of four hours.
Bacterial spot and speck, botrytis, powdery mildew, early and late blight and damping off are listed for tomatoes and peppers.
Useful as a soil drench and foliar spray, it contains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.
Trichoderma harzianum T-22 is Rootshield’s active ingredient. Extremely broad labeled, it manages fusarium, verticillium, pythium, rhizoctonia, thielaviopsis and more.
With several modes of action it also features systemic acquired and host resistance.
Rootshield secretes enzymes to dissolve pathogen cell walls.
Research has shown effectiveness in field strawberries and greenhouse tomatoes.
Rootshield Plus adds Trichoderma virens to Rootshield, therefore augmenting the disease list to include phytophthora.
Actinovate AG protects by colonizing.
It also increases nutrient uptake and is labeled for vegetables, tree fruit, herbs, berries, grapes and agronomic crops.
With Streptomyces lydicus WYEC108, it also works for turf, greenhouse and nursery applications.
Soil drench usage suppresses root rot and damping off caused by the fusarium, rhizoctonia, pythium, phytophthora and verticillium fungi. In foliar applications, suppressions include downy and powdery mildew, botrytis, bacterial spot and sclerotinia.
Milstop is not a biological material; rather it is potassium bicarbonate.
It controls powdery mildew, and prevents alternaria blight, anthracnose, black spot, botrytis, cercospiora leaf spot, downy mildew, phomopsis blight and septoria leaf spot. It is OMRI listed.
Its mode of action inhibits fungal cell wall formation by pulling water from germinating spores and alters pH on leaf surfaces.
Other such products include Armicarb, Kaligreen and GreenCure, but Bogash cautioned to not confuse Milstop with Mycostop.
Turning to insect management, Bogash examined several parasites and predators.
Identification of the insect is necessary.
A tiny wasp, Aphidius colemani, works well with both the green peach and the melon aphid.
The predatory midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza, attacks the green peach, melon and potato aphid.
A lacewing, Chrysoperia rufilabris, also manages all three. Banker plants, too, can be effective.
The aphicides, Fulfil and Endeavor, paralyze feeding tubes.
Also, the Neem products, plus Aza-Direct, Azatin, and Beauvaria bassiana offer control.
The spinosads tackle Western flower thrips, but Bogash warned that WFTs are notorious for developing resistance.
The predators orius insidiosus and the minute pirate bug are suggested as well.
For whiteflies, the predatory wasp Encarsia formosa excels in early control.
Delphastus catalinae and Eretmocerus eremicus beetles also help manage.
Numerous options are available for two-spotted spider mites.
Washing them off, using soaps and oils, and a range of miticides are listed.
In addition spider mite predators include Phytosieulus persimilis, Mesoseiulus, Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus fallacis and Feltiella acarisuga manage in various ways.
Bogash pointed out that research shows that combining conventional insecticides with mycoinsecticides enhances control.
Interestingly, he notes that over 750 species of fungi are known to be pathogenic to insects.
They invade the exoskeleton of the insect.
Twelve species or subspecies of fungi have been used by about 80 companies to formulate more than 171 mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides.
Currently five fungal organisms have become the major focus of researchers. These are:
Beauveria bassiana, Hirsutella thompsonii, Isaria fumosorosea, Lecanicillium muscarium, and Metarhizum anisopliae.
Bogash stressed that growers should learn what to look for, learn correct storage of beneficials, how and when to release them, deal with reputable companies, be proactive, and be aware of the chemical interactions with beneficials.